In the labyrinthine world of finance, where numbers, charts, and market dynamics converge, the National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE) stands as a bastion of clarity and structure. The NSE’s flagship index, the Nifty, is a beacon for investors seeking to understand and navigate the Indian stock market. In this article, as a part of career oriented long term trading course we and our students of Advance Trading Course embark on a journey to demystify the Nifty and unveil the intricate art of index formation, touching upon various facets of stock market indices and their profound significance. These are few facts and figures where we groom our students in Stock Market Advanced Course.
You all can refer to presentation video in youtube https://youtu.be/Y4xpxzFHgns by our Career oriented long term trading course student.
Before delving into the heart of Nifty, it is imperative to grasp the fundamental methodologies behind constructing stock market indices. These methodologies serve as the bedrock upon which indices are built:
- Market Capitalization Weighted Method: This method assigns weights to companies in an index based on their market capitalization. Market capitalization, often regarded as a company’s worth in the stock market, is determined by multiplying the current share price by the total number of outstanding shares. In essence, this approach elevates larger companies to positions of greater influence within the index.
- Free Float Market Capitalization Weighted Index: Seeking greater precision, this index factors in only shares actively traded in the open market, excluding those held by promoters or locked-in shares. By doing so, it paints a more accurate picture of a company’s genuine market value.
- Price Weighted Index: Here, stocks are weighted based solely on their individual share prices. High-priced stocks exert a more substantial impact on the index’s movement.
- Equal Weighted Index: This type of index levels the playing field, affording each stock equal importance, irrespective of market capitalization or share price. It offers a more balanced perspective of the market.
Market capitalization, as the cornerstone of stock market valuation, warrants our attention. It signifies the comprehensive market value of a company, as ascertained by the stock market. Calculated by multiplying the current share price by the total number of outstanding shares, it paints a vivid picture of a company’s standing.
Market Cap = Current Share Price * Total Number of Shares Outstanding
Notably, larger market capitalizations often connote more established and reliable companies, making them favored choices for cautious investors.
To attain a more precise gauge of market capitalization, the free float methodology is enlisted. This methodology calculates a company’s market capitalization by considering only shares actively traded in the open market, deliberately excluding those held by promoters or locked-in shares. It is a potent tool for uncovering a company’s true market worth.
Free Float Mkt Cap = CMP * Free Float Shares
In this equation, the number of shares unavailable for trading encompasses promoter holdings, locked shares in the hands of shareholders, and strategic holdings.
As we learn the above facts, let’s move to next level as a part of Advanced Trading Courses in our Career oriented long term trading course to know more about Nifty & Indices.
The Nifty Total Market Index stands as an emblem of inclusivity, designed to track the performance of 750 stocks spanning the diverse landscape of large, mid, small, and microcap segments. This comprehensive benchmark achieves this feat through a solitary index. Constituents of the Nifty 500 index and Nifty Microcap 250 index are seamlessly incorporated into the Nifty Total Market index, with stock weightings meticulously tailored to free-float market capitalization.
Let’s learn more on key Nifty Indices as a part of our Advanced Trading Courses.
The Nifty family is a constellation of indices, each fulfilling specific investor requisites:
- Nifty 500: A compendium of the top 500 companies based on full market capitalization.
- Nifty 100: Encompassing the upper echelons of the stock market, this index comprises the top 100 companies based on full market capitalization from Nifty 500.
- Nifty Midcap 150: Peering into the mid-tier, this index showcases the subsequent 150 companies (ranked 101-250) by full market capitalization from Nifty 500.
- Nifty Smallcap 250: Its purview extends to the remaining 250 companies (ranked 251-500) from Nifty 500, meticulously highlighting small-cap enterprises.
- Nifty 50: The crown jewel of the NSE, this index represents the essence of the Indian stock market, comprising 50 select companies from the Nifty 100 based on free-float market capitalization, liquidity, and derivative contract availability.
- Nifty Next 50: Awaiting their moment in the spotlight, these are the next 50 companies from Nifty 100 after the Nifty 50 companies have stepped into the limelight.
- Nifty 500 Multicap 50:25:25: An ingenious blend of large, mid, and small-cap companies, this index assigns weightings of 50%, 25%, and 25%, respectively, subject to quarterly rebalancing.
As mentioned earlier, you all can refer to presentation video in youtube https://youtu.be/Y4xpxzFHgns by our Stock Market Advanced Trading Course student.
Amidst this diverse galaxy of indices, the Nifty 50 gleams as the torchbearer on the National Stock Exchange. It meticulously captures the behavior of a select portfolio of blue-chip companies, recognized as the largest and most liquid securities in India. This exclusive club comprises 50 companies listed and traded on the NSE, commanding an imposing 66% of its float-adjusted market capitalization. In essence, the Nifty 50 mirrors the Indian stock market in its truest form.
Let’s move ahead as a part of our Advance Trading Course, more into Index.
The Nifty 50’s calculation hinges upon a meticulous, float-adjusted, market capitalization weighted methodology. This method ensures that the index’s value accurately mirrors the total market value of all its constituent stocks concerning a specific base period. Moreover, this methodology seamlessly incorporates changes in the index’s composition and navigates corporate actions like stock splits and rights issuances without disrupting the index’s value.
However, eligibility for inclusion in the Nifty 50 is a stringent ordeal, subject to the following criteria:
- A stock must exhibit an average impact cost of 0.50% or less over the past six months for 90% of observations, with a basket size of Rs. 100 million.
- The company must possess a listing history spanning at least six months.
- Eligibility extends solely to companies trading in the F&O (Futures and Options) segment.
- In a novel twist, companies issuing IPOs can qualify for inclusion after meeting standard eligibility criteria for a condensed three-month period instead of the typical six months.
Impact cost is an influential metric in the stock market, serving as a crucial gauge of liquidity. It quantifies the cost borne by a buyer or seller when executing an order, factoring in prevailing market liquidity conditions. Notably, this metric deviates from fixed transaction costs like brokerage and taxes.
Impact cost = (Actual Buy/Sell Price – Ideal Price) / Ideal Price x 100
Ideal Price = (Best Buy Price + Best Sell Price) / 2
Actual Buy/Sell Price = Sum of (Quantity x Execution Price) / Total Quantity
The Nifty family transcends traditional boundaries, offering a mosaic of sector-specific and thematic indices tailored to investor preferences. These indices shine a spotlight on specific industries and themes, enabling investors to hone in on their desired exposure:
Sectorial Indices: These indices span a multitude of sectors, including Auto, Bank, Financial Services, FMCG, Healthcare, IT, Media, Private Bank, PSU Bank, Realty, Consumer Durables, Oil and Gas, Metal, and Pharma. Each diligently reflects the performance of its respective industry.
Thematic Indices: The thematic landscape features a rich tapestry of options, encompassing Commodities, Core Housing, Energy, Housing, India Consumption, Infrastructure, Services Sector, PSE, and Transportation & Logistics Indices. Each theme-oriented index empowers investors to align with specific market themes or sectors.
The process of index reconstitution serves as a critical cog in the wheel of index management, ensuring that market indices evolve in tandem with current market conditions. This dynamic process involves sorting, adding, and removing stocks to maintain an up-to-date reflection of market capitalization and style.
Nifty indices undergo rebalancing semi-annually, with predefined cutoff dates on January 31 and July 31 each year. This meticulous process factors in average data spanning the preceding six months leading up to the cutoff date. Importantly, a four-week notice is issued to the market to brace for impending changes.
In Stock Market Advanced Course, we must know few more details as below :
Corporate actions represent seismic shifts in a company’s trajectory and can exert profound influences on index composition and performance. Here’s a glimpse into the realm of corporate actions and their impact on Nifty indices:
- Bonus Shares: Bonus shares represent additional shares distributed to existing shareholders without incurring any additional cost. These windfalls increase shareholders’ total holdings and can alter index weights.
- Rights Shares: Rights issues allow companies to issue shares to existing shareholders in proportion to their current shareholding. These shares are typically offered at a price lower than the market price, potentially affecting the index.
- Stock Splits: A stock split entails an increase in the number of outstanding shares by issuing more shares to current shareholders. This action proportionally reduces the share price while maintaining overall market capitalization.
- Special Dividends: Special dividends, being non-recurring and larger than regular dividends, can have an immediate impact on share prices and subsequently on indices.
- Mergers and Demergers: Corporate mergers and demergers can lead to changes in index constituents as companies combine, separate, or restructure.
- Replacement of Stocks: When Nifty 50 constituents no longer meet stringent eligibility criteria, they are replaced with stocks better suited to the index’s requirements.
For more details, you can refer to presentation video in youtube https://youtu.be/Y4xpxzFHgns by our Stock Market Advance Trading Course student.
The Nifty and its family of indices are far more than mere digits on a screen; they are invaluable instruments for investors, serving as barometers of the Indian stock market’s pulse. Understanding the intricacies of index formation, eligibility criteria, impact costs, and the ripple effects of corporate actions is pivotal for anyone venturing into the labyrinthine world of finance. Whether you are a seasoned investor or just beginning your financial journey, remember that knowledge is your most potent asset in the dynamic realm of finance. So, in our Career oriented long term trading course, we insists all our Advanced Trading Courses students to do more and more research so that they will have an edge over all to excel in this stock market trading and investment.
Happy trading, and may your life be filled with success and contentment!
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